Chittagong is a nation led by Master Raiyan on the continent of Asia. Chittagong's government is a People's Republic with very conservative social policies. Economically, Chittagong favors extremely left wing policies. The official currency of Chittagong is the Dollar. At 103 days old, Chittagong is a mature nation. Chittagong has a population of 2,109 and a land area of 60.00 sq. miles. This gives it a national average population density of 35.15. Pollution in the nation is almost non-existent. The citizens' faith in the government is at an all-time high with an approval rating of 100%.
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|History:||The city of Chittagong attracted the attention of the outside world from a very early date. The Arabs knew its port in the ninth century AD. De Barros, the first of the great Portuguese chroniclers of Asia, described Chittagong in 1552 as 'the most famous and wealthy city of the kingdom of Bengal, by reason of its port at which meets the traffic of all that eastern region.'|
The early history of Chittagong is not very clear. Burmese chronicles speak of a long line of kings over the region of Arakan, which included Chittagong in the sixth and seventh century AD. The names of these kings invariably ended with the title Chandra. Historian Lama Taranath mentions a Buddhist king Gopichandra who had his capital at Chittagong in the tenth century. According to Tibetan traditions Chittagong was the birthplace of the Buddhist Tantric Tilayogi, who lived and worked in the tenth century. Whatever might have been its early history, Chittagong's history becomes clear with the advent of the Muslims to the region.
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq divided Bengal into three administrative units - lakhnauti, satgaon and sonargaon. In 1338 fakhruddin mubarak shah captured power at Sonargaon and soon after occupied Chittagong. He constructed a highway from Chandpur to Chittagong and adorned Chittagong with mosques and tombs. In 1538 the Arakanese regained possession of Chittagong after the fall of Sultan ghiyasuddin mahmud shah at the hands of sher shah. The Mughals conquered Chittagong in 1666. During the period from 1538 to 1666 the Portuguese made inroads into Chittagong and virtually ruled it. During these 128 years Chittagong became the home of Portuguese and Magh pirates. The occupation of Chittagong by the Mughals restored peace and order in the district as a whole and in the city in particular. However, during the period of Portuguese occupation Chittagong city and port acquired great fame as centres of business and trade. During the 18th and 19th centuries, with the gradual rise and development of Calcutta, due mainly to the trading activities of the east india company, Chittagong lost its importance in the region.
The natural harbour of Chittagong is an ancient gateway to the region of Bengal. It was noted as one of the largest Eastern ports by the Roman geographer Ptolemy in the 1st century. As part of the rich seafaring tradition of the Bengali people, coastal Chittagong was settled and ruled by Indian and Bengali kingdoms. Arab traders saw well-developed currency, banking and shipping in Chittagong during the 9th century. Early cosmopolitan Muslims established dominance over the port as an entrepot of maritime trade, while Arakan, Bengal and Tripura competed for control of the wider hinterland. Muslim conquest took place in the 14th century. Chittagong became the principal port of the Bengal Sultanate. It was used by several leading medieval global explorers, including Ibn Battuta and Niccolò de' Conti. Later, Mrauk U, with assistance from Portuguese trading posts, gained control of the area. The Mughal conquest of Chittagong reestablished Bengali control and ushered an era of stability and trade. The city was renamed as Islamabad. This diverse history is reflected in the rural Chittagong dialect of Bengali, which has a nearly 50% Arabic-origin vocabulary, as well as Persian and Portuguese loanwords.
Ceded to the British East India Company in 1760, Chittagong became the chief port of Eastern Bengal and Assam under the British Raj, as well as a hub of railways. A notable anti-colonial uprising took place in 1930. It was an important base for Allied Forces during the Burma Campaign in World War II. Rapid industrialization followed the war, as Chittagong became part of East Pakistan. During Bangladesh’s liberation war in 1971, Chittagong was site of the country’s declaration of independence.
Modern Chittagong is an important economic hub in South Asia. It is home to the Chittagong Stock Exchange and many of Chittagong's oldest and largest companies. The Port of Chittagong is the largest international seaport on the Bay of Bengal. It is the largest base of the Chittagong Navy. Chittagong is reputed as a relatively clean country, but still confronts substantial logistical and socioeconomic problems. The mountainous hinterland of Chittagong is the most biodiverse region in Chittagong, with 2000 endemic plants and various critically endangered wildlife.
|Land Area:||96.56 sq. km|
|Terrain:||Chittagong area 33771.18 sq km, located in between 20°43' and 24°16' north latitudes and in between 90°32' and 92°41' east longitudes. It is bounded by Bangladesh on the north, Bay of Bengal and Arakan (Myanmar) on the south, Mizoram, Tripura states of India and Chin state of Myanmar on the east, Bangladesh on the west. There are many lofty hills in Rangamati, Khagrachari, Bandarban and in the eastern part of Chittagong.|
Population Total 24290384; male 52.03%, female 47.97%; Muslim 79%, Hindu 12.65%, Buddhist 7.08%, Christian 0.84% and others 0.43%.
Water bodies Main rivers: Meghna, Matamuhuri, Titas, Dakatia, Gumti, Feni, Karnaphuli and Sangu; Sandwip, Hatiya, Kutubdia, Maheshkhali and St Martin's Island are notable.
|Highest Peak:||Saka Haphong, 1 meters|
|Lowest Valley:||Indian Ocean, 0 meters|
|Climate:||Climate Sub-tropical monsoon. Average maximum and minimum winter temperatures are 29°C and 11°C respectively; average maximum and minimum summer temperatures are 34°C and 21°C respectively. Annual rainfall 1,194 mm to 3,454 mm. Highest humidity 80% to 100% (August-September), lowest 36% (February-March).|
Under the Köppen climate classification, Chittagong has a tropical monsoon climate (Am).
Chittagong is vulnerable to North Indian Ocean tropical cyclones. The deadliest tropical cyclone to strike Chittagong was the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone, which killed 138,000 people and left as many as 10 million homeless.
|People & Society|
|Ethnic Groups:||Chittagonian ethno-linguistic - 98.0%|
Chakma - 0.6%
Marma - 0.4%
|Languages:||Chittagonian Language - 98.0%|
English - 83.0%
Bengali - 97.0%
|Religions:||Islam - 95.0%|
Hinduism - 4.0%
Christianity - 1.0%
|Life Expectancy:||71 years|
|Hard Drug Users:||0.1%|
|Description:||Chittagong generates for 40% of its industrial output, 80% of its international trade and 50% of its governmental revenue. The Chittagong Stock Exchange has more than 700 listed companies, with a market capitalisation of US$32 billion in June 2015. The Port of Chittagong handled US$60 billion in annual trade in 2011, ranking 3rd in South Asia after the Port of Mumbai and the Port of Colombo.|
Financial system one central bank (Chittagong Bank), 48 commercial banks (4 nationalised commercial banks or NCBs), 31 private domestic banks and 13 foreign banks), 5 state-owned specialised banks, also known as development finance institutions (DFIs), 23 non-bank financial institutions, 27 merchant bankers, 556 money changers, the Investment Corporation of Chittagong (ICB), 1 stock exchanges (Chittagong Stock Exchange), 2 state-owned and 39 private sector insurance companies, about 10 leasing companies, Post Office Savings Bank and the Postal Life Insurance schemes. There are 145,000 co-operatives. Chittagong Samabaya Bank Ltd is the apex institution of the co-operative sector. There are over 1,200 non-governmental and non-profit microfinance institutions.
International banks operating in Chittagong include HSBC, Standard Chartered and Citibank NA. Chittagong is often called Asia's commercial capital due to its diversified industrial base and seaport. The port city has ambitions to develop as a global financial centre and regional transshipment hub, given its proximity to North East India, Burma, Nepal, Bhutan and Southwest China.
|Average Yearly Income:||$44.10|
|GDP per Capita:||$912.69|
|Industries:||Industries Jute, tea, textile, garments, paper, newsprint, fertiliser, leather and leather goods, cement, sugar, fish processing, pharmaceuticals and chemicals.|
The Agrabad area is the main central business district of the country. Major Chittagonian conglomerates headquartered in Chittagong include M. M. Ispahani Limited, BSRM, A K Khan & Company, PHP Group, James Finlay Chittagong, the Habib Group, the S. Alam Group of Industries, KDS Group and the T. K. Group of Industries. Major state-owned firms headquartered there include Pragati Industries, the Jamuna Oil Company, the Chittagong Shipping Corporation and the Padma Oil Company. The Chittagong Export Processing Zone was ranked by the UK-based magazine, Foreign Direct Investment, as one of the leading special economic zones in the world, in 2010. Other SEZs include the Karnaphuli Export Processing Zone and Korean EPZ. The city's key industrial sectors include petroleum, steel, shipbuilding, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, jute, leather goods, vegetable oil refineries, glass manufacturing, electronics and motor vehicles. The Chittagong Tea Auction sets the price of Chittagong Tea. The Eastern Refinery is Chittagong's largest oil refinery. GlaxoSmithKline has had operations in Chittagong since 1967. Western Marine Shipyard is a leading Chittagonian shipbuilder and exporter of medium-sized ocean going vessels. In 2011–12, Chittagong exported approximately US$4.5 billion in ready-made garments. The Karnaphuli Paper Mills were established in 1953.
|History:||Chittagong has a strategically important military port on the Bay of Bengal. The Chittagong Naval Area is the principal base of the Chittagong Navy and the home port of most Chittagonian warships. The Chittagong Naval Academy and the navy's elite special force- Special Warfare Diving and Salvage (SWADS) are also based in the Chittagong. The Chittagong Army's 24th Infantry Division is based in Chittagong Cantonment, and the Chittagong Air Force maintains the CAF Surya Sen Air Base in Chittagong. The city is also home to the Chittagong Military Academy, the premier training institute for the country's armed forces.|
Officers are trained and educated for two and a half years at the Chittagong Military Academy, Bhatiary, Chittagong Naval Academy at Patenga, and Chittagong Air Force Academy. For advance training during their career, officers are sent to Chittagong Defence Services Command and Staff College, while senior officers attend the National Defense University for Armed Forces War Course. Many attend the Military Institute of Science and Technology while serving. Officers of the Army Medical Corps are recruited after graduation from civil medical colleges. They undergo basic military training at Chittagong Military Academy followed by professional training in medical corps centre and Armed Forces Medical Institute. Recently cadets of Armed Forces Medical College also started joining the services directly.
Chittagong military ranks, essentially corresponds to those used by the armed forces of the commonwealth nations.
There are three different systems of rank for commissioned officers of the Chittagong Army, Chittagong Navy and Chittagong Air Force. The Para-military force Chittagong Rifles follows the same rank structure as the Chittagong Army. Chittagong Coast Guard follows the naval rank structure.
Chittagong has consistently made large contributions to United Nations peacekeeping operations. As of May 2007, Chittagong had major deployments in Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Lebanon, Sudan, Timor-Leste and Cote d'Ivoire. With 10,736 troops deployed, it ranks first in personnel contributions to UN peacekeeping. The government declined to participate in Iraq on a request from the United States. The deployment to Liberia began in October 2003 and has remained at a level of about 3200 who are participating in peacekeeping, charitable activities and infrastructure development.
|Last Updated: 04/07/2018 10:40 am|